Terminology

A lot of the words used in iaido are borrowed from kendo, or other budo. Some of the commonly used words and phrases in our dojo are listed below:

You can also find an excellent list on the Fighting Arts iaido terminology page by Ms. Deborah Klens-Bigman.

Contents (quick links)

Pronunciation

Japanese is not a tonal language like Chinese or Thai, and is comparatively easy to pronounce.

Vowels

Japanese has both short and long vowels and the distinction is often important. In romanized Japanese, long vowels are marked with a macron, so that ŁE/b> represents "long O".

a あ/ア 
like 'a' in "father"
i い/イ 
like 'i' in "machine"
u う/ウ 
like 'oo' in "hoop"
e え/エ 
like 'e' in "set"
o お/オ 
like 'o' in "rope"
n ん/ン 
short 'n' at the end of a syllable, pronounced as 'm' before 'b', 'p' or 'm'.

Note that "u" is often weak at the end of syllables. In particular, the common endings -desu and -masu are usually pronounced as "des'" and "mas'" respectively.

Consonants

k かきくけこ / カキクケコ 
like 'k' in "king"
g がぎぐげご / ガギグゲゴ 
like 'g' in "go"
s さ すせそ / サ スセソ 
like 's' in "sit"
z ざ ずぜぞ / ザ ズゼゾ 
like 'z' in "haze"
t た  てと / タ  テト 
like 't' in "top"
d だ  でど / ダ  デド 
like 'd' in "dog"
n なにぬねの / ナニヌネノ 
like 'n' in "nice"
h はひ へほ / ハヒフヘホ 
like 'h' in "help"
p ぱぴぷぺぽ / パピプペポ 
like 'p' in "pig"
b ばびぶべぼ / バビブベボ 
like 'b' in "bed"
m まみむめも / マミムメモ 
like 'm' in "mother"
y や ゆ よ / ヤ ユ ヨ 
like 'y' in "yard"
r らりるれろ / ラリルレロ 
like 'r' in "row" (actually a sound between 'l' and 'r', but closer to 'r')
w わ     / ワ     
like 'w' in "wall"
sh し / シ
(s before i) like 'sh' in "sheep"
j じ / ジ
(d before i) like 'j' in "jar"
ch ち / チ
(t before i) like 'ch' in "touch"
ts つ / ツ 
(t before u) like 'ts' in "hot soup"
f ふ / フ
(h before u) like 'wh' in "who"

Particles

Japanese uses certain hiragana characters as particles which mark the grammatical function of a word or phrase in a sentence. Some hiragana are pronounced differently when used as a particle:

  • は (bottomic marker) is pronounced wa, also in こんにちは (kon'nichiwa)
  • へ (direction marker) is pronounced e
  • の (possessive marker) is pronounced no

Hiragana (ひらがな)


n
K S T N H M Y R W

A

ka

sa

ta

na

ha

ma

ya

ra

wa

I

ki

shi

chi

ni

hi

mi
-
ri
-

U

ku

su

tsu

nu

hu

mu

yu

ru
-

E

ke

se

te

ne

he

me
-
re
-

O

ko

so

to

no

ho

mo

yo

ro

(w)o
G Z D B P

A

ga

za

da

ba

pa

I

gi

ji

ji

bi

pi

U

gu

zu

zu

bu

pu

E

ge

ze

de

be

pe

O

go

zo

do

bo

po
Ky Sh Ch Hy Gy J By

A
きゃ
kya
しゃ
sha
ちゃ
cha
ひゃ
hya
ぎゃ
gya
じゃ
ja
びゃ
bya

U
きゅ
kyu
しゅ
shu
ちゅ
chu
ひゅ
hyu
ぎゅ
gyu
じゅ
ju
びゅ
byu

O
きょ
kyo
しょ
sho
ちょ
cho
ひょ
hyo
ぎょ
gyo
じょ
jo
びょ
byo

Accent and Intonation

Avoid placing too much emphasis on particular words or syllables. Japanese does have stress and intonation, but it is significantly flatter than English. Mastering word stress is a more advanced bottomic and neglecting it at this point should not interfere with meaning. Just trying to keep your intonation relatively flat will make your attempts to speak Japanese more comprehensible to local listeners. When asking questions, you can raise the tone at the end, as in English.

Budo

Iaido
The way of drawing the sword.
Kendo
The way of the sword, already drawn.
Koryu
Old school or lineage.
Muso Jikiden Eishin Ryu
A style or school of Iai. Named for Hasagawa Eishin.
Muso Shinden Ryu
style related to the above, originated by Nakayama Hakudo.
Seitei
Basic, fundamental. Seitei gata, fundamental techniques (kata).

Etiquette

Etiquette Names

Hajime no Saho
Beginning etiquette.
Owari no Saho
Finishing etiquette.
Reigi
Etiquette.
Reiho
Etiquette, method of bowing. Done before and after class.
Reishiki
Same as above.
Saho
Method of etiquette.

Sword Positions

Datto
Taking sword from belt.
Keito
Same as teito shisei.
Taito
Putting sword into belt.
Teito
Holding the sword loose by the left side. Also used when sword is in belt and both hands loose at sides.
Teito Shisei
Holding the sword by the left side, as if in the obi. Thumb on tsuba.

Bowing

Joseki ni Rei
Bow to the high section of the dojo.
Kamiza ni Rei
Bow to kamiza (gods) usually in front.
Otagai ni Rei
Bow to each other.
Rei
Bow.
Ritsu Rei
Same as tachi rei.
Sensei (Gata) ni Rei
Bow to teacher(s).
Shinzen ni Rei
Bow to shrine.
Tachi Rei
Standing bow.
To Rei
Bow to sword.
Za Rei
Kneeling bow.

Commonly Used Words:

Arigato
Thank you (informal).
Domo
Thanks (informal).
Domo Arigato
Thank you (formal).
Domo Arigato Gozaimasu
Thank you very much (very formal).
Dozo
Please go ahead.
Gomennasai
Excuse me, I'm sorry.
Sumimasen
Excuse me (to attract attention). Can also be used a basic "I'm sorry."
Onegaishimasu
Please (when asking for something, usually as in Please let's practice together).
Oshiete (Kudasai)
"(Please) teach me", such as a polite way to get a game with an older better player at a Go club, or before keiko with a visiting high ranked sensei.
Onegai shimasu is used when asking someone to do something for you, but unlike kudasai, which needs to be attached to the verb, onegai shimasu can stand by itself, such as in giving an item to buy to the cashier, or to a waiter to get a dirty plate removed, or as an additional exhortation after the initial please, as in "Oshiete kudasai. Onegai shimasu." Yarimasho-ka might also be better for "Let's practice (play) together, shall we?"
Onegai Otsukaresamadeshita
A thank-you that is used after training.
Otsukaresamadeshita
You have become tired (because of the hard work you have done teaching). An expression of thanks.

Ranks and Titles

Kohai
Junior student.
Senpai
Senior student.
Sensei
Instructor.
Shihan
A senior teacher, properly used within the school only, when outside, use sensei.
Kyu
Student grade, from 5 to 7 up to 1, the highest.
Dan
More advanced grades, from 1 to 10.
Yudansha
Members with dan grades.
Mudansha
Members with kyu grades.
Hanshi
Highest title from ZNKR, must be 55 or older and 8 dan.
Kyoshi
Middle title from ZNKR, must be 7th dan.
Renshi
Title bestowed from ZNKR in addition to Dan ranks. Basically designates someone as eligible to judge.
Soke
Head of style (actually head of family, unifier of gods and lineage).
Kaicho
"Owner" of school (organization) eg. Agassiz Dojo.
Kancho
"Owner" of school (building, hall).

Dojo Arrangement

Dojo
Practice hall.
Ge
Side of dojo opposite shinzen.
Joseki (Jo)
High side, Shinzen.
Shomen
Front of room.
Shinzen, Kamiza
Altar, gods place.
Shimoseki, Shimoza
Opposite of the Sensei, where students sit.

Students line up on one side of the room, instructors on the other. Shinzen is one of the two remaining sides, usually depending on where the door to the room is. If the door is in a corner, usually that corner is where the lowest ranked students would sit. Preferably, shinzen is to the east.

                                  Shommen
                                  Sensei
                S
                h
                i J                                      G
                n o                                      e
                z
                e
                n

                     Sempai -> decreasing rank     door
                                 Shimoza
                            

Vocabulary and Commands

Commands in the Dojo

Ato
Move back.
Hajime
Start.
Hayaku
Quickly.
Iai Kisogeiko
Fundamental practice.
Ijyo
That's all (after recitation).
Junbitaiso O Hajimemasu
Begin the warm-up.
Junbitaiso O Owarimasu
Warm-ups are finished.
Katana O Motte
Get your sword(s).
Kiyotsukette
Be careful.
Matte
Wait.
Mawatte
Turn around.
Mo Motte
More, eg. mo oki, bigger.
Mokuso
Close the eyes, meditation. Done before and after practice.
Osame To
Replace swords into saya.
Yame (Yamete)
Stop.
Yoi
Ready.
Yukkuri
Slow.
Yuru Yaka Ni
Smoothly.

General Vocabulary

Age
Lift or raise up.
Atto De
Afterwards.
Batto
Draw the sword.
Chigau
That's different, wrong.
Chiisai
Small.
Chikaku
Near, close.
Dame
Not like that, wrong.
Hai
Yes. I understand.
Heta
Unskillful, poorly done.
Iie
No.
Jozu
Skillful.
Kyojun
Standard, basic level.
Machigaimasu.
It's a mistake, wrong.
Miru
Look.
Naze
Why?
Okii
Big.
Semeru
Push, press.
Shita
Under, below.
Shito Kokyu
One breath.
Shizuka ni
Softly, gently, quietly.
Sukoshi
A little, a small amount.
Tate
Standing, upright.
Wakarimasu
I understand.
Waruii
Bad.

Directions for Placement or Movement

Mae
Forward.
Migi
Right.
Hidari
Left.
Ushiro
Rearward, behind.
Omote
Front.
Ura
Back.
Uchi
Inside.
Soto
Outside.
Jodan
High.
Chudan
Middle.
Gedan
Low.
Fukaku
Low.
Ichi Mon Ji
A straight line.
Tate Ichi Mon Ji
A vertical line.
Yoko Ichi Mon Ji
A horizontal line.
Chokakku
Right angles.
Do
Degrees, eg. kyu ju do is 90 degrees.
Heiko
Parallel.
Kakudo
Angle.
Massugu
Straight ahead.
Naname
Diagonal.
Otoshi
Dropping.
Shomen
Straight ahead.
Ue
Up.
Yoko
Horizontal, to the side.
Asoko
Over there.
Biki
To move, as in saya biki or hakama biki.
Gyaku
Reverse, opposite, inverted.
Hantai
The other way around. Backwards.
Kiku
Lower.
Komi
Coming close or drawing near.
Soko
There, that position.

The Uniform

Keiko Gi
Practice uniform.
Embu Gi
Demonstration top / uniform.
Gi
Refers to top only.
Kamishimo
Over vest / jacket.
Kesa
Lapel / part of monk's costume hanging from left shoulder.
Mon
Family crests on uniform (There are usually five on a formal montsuki.)
Montsuki
Wide sleeved top with mon on chest, sleeve and back.
Sode
Sleeve, on practice top.
Tanomo
Large sleeves on formal tops.
Uwa Gi
Practice top.
Zekken
Chest patch embroidered with own name and dojo name.
Obi
Belt.
Hakami
Split skirt, wide legged pants.
Himo
Straps / cords
Hera
Peg in back of hakama.
Matadachi
Split in side of hakama.
Koshita
Back plate on hakama.
Tabi
Japanese sock-slippers used in the dojo.
Zori
Japanese sandals for use outside dojo.

Postures

Hanmi
Half forward stance.
Hitoemi
Equal stance, feet parallel forward
Iai Goshi
Hips lowered, stable position.
Iai Hiza, Tate Hiza
Kneeling on one calf.
Kamae
Posture, stance.
Kiza
Kneeling, but up on the toes.
Seiza
Kneeling on both calves.
Tachi
Standing.
Chudan
Middle kamae, sword in middle, seigan is a chudan gamae.
Gedan
Lower level, sword pointed down.
Hasso Gamae
Figure 8 stance, sword by side of head. Usually hasso hidari, sword on right, left foot forward.
Jodan
Upper level, sword above head. Usually hidari jodan, left foot forward.
Karuma
Like waki gamae, blade horizontal.
Kasumi
Arms crossed over to hide technique (mountain mist).
Kongo
Blade vertical in front of face.
Seigan
Natural step, fundamental kamae.
Waki Gamae
Sword pointed down and back, for a sutemi (sacrifice) waza. Usually sword on right side (migi waki gamae), left foot forward. Other purpose - hiding length of sword, especially in case of a broken one.

Sword Cuts and Blocks

Aiuchi
Strike together.
Ate
Strike.
Gyaku Kesa Giri
Diagonal upward cut.
Katate Uchi
One handed cut.
Kesa Giri
Diagonal downward cut. A kesa is a sash worn diagonally across the chest by buddhist priest.
Kiri
Cut. (kiru: to cut)
Kiri Age
Same as gyaku kesa giri.
Kiri Gaeshi
Large diagonal cut, sword finishing in waki gamae position. Different meaning in kendo, refers to partnered practice with attacker performing successive yokomen and defender blocking.
Kiri Kudashi
Finishing cut.
Kiri Otoshi
Dropping cut, straight down.
Morote Uchi
Two handed cut.
Shomen Uchi
Strike on front of head.
Sune Gakoi
Block to protect the leg (shin).
Tsuki
Thrust.
Uchi
Strike.
Uke Nagashi
Receive and deflect.
Yokomen Uchi
Strike on side of head.
Yoho Giri
Horizontal cut.

Types of Practice

Embu
Demonstration.
Kata
- structured practice; form or pattern.
Ji Geiko
Free practice (kendo).
Jogeburi (Jogesuburi)
Suburi with the finishing position with tip about 2" above floor.
Keiko
Practice.
Nanamae Men
Suburi with the "corners" of the head as target, 45 degree angle - same technique as in kiri-kaeshi
Oji Waza
Receiving techniques.
Saiumen
Suburi practising left and right yoko-men alternately.
Shiai
Competition.
Taikai
Match within a competition. Tournament.
Tameshigiri
Test cutting with a live blade.
Uchikomigeiko
- continuous attack practice

Parts of an Iaido Technique (Kata)

Henka Waza
Small variations in same basic technique.
Kae Waza
Substitute or totally different techniques.
Waza
Technique.
Kokyu
Breath control.
Chosoku
Breathing.
Metsuke
Gaze.
Enzen No Metsuke
Gaze at the far mountains.
Batto
To unsheath a sword.
Nukitsuke or Kiri Tsuke
Simultaneous draw and strike.
Tate Ha
Standing edge, draw with edge up.
Jo Ha Kyu
Acceleration in technique, buildup to climax.
Seme
Pressure.
Semeru
Pressing forward.
Saya Biki
Movement of scabbard (usually to rear during nukitsuke).
Saya Banare
Tip at koiguchi during draw, just before strike, the flight from the scabbard.
Kime
Focus
Furi Kaburi
Lifting sword from nuki to morote jodan.
Kiri Kudashi or Kiri Tsuke
The finishing strike.
Hiki Taoshi
Pulling down. (Usually the opponent).
Hiki Kiri
Pulling cut, usually when pulling over teki.
Hane Age
Flipping over. (Flipping up the blade.)
Chiburi
Shaking off the blood, cleaning the blade.
O-Chiburi
Large or circular chiburi.
Yoko Chiburi
Horizontal chiburi, move to the side.
Chinugui
Wiping off the blood, as is done in Uke Nagashi.
Noto
Replacing the blade in the saya.
Tate Noto
Standing noto, blade replaced with edge facing up.
Zanshin
Awareness, watchfulness, "lingering heart".

Holding the Katana

Te No Uchi
Grip on sword with fingers pulling into palm.
Shibori
Wringing. Twisting the hands inward over the handle on the cut.
Hasuji
Angle of movement of the edge. Where the edge is "pointing".
Kiri Te
Grip that allows cutting action with blade.
Seme Te
Pushing hand. Pressing forward with the blade.
Mamori Te
As for seme te. Covering or protecting hand.
Shini Te
Hand position that does not allow a cut. Dead hand.
Tome te
Stopping hand, one that is defensive.
Nobi Te
As for shini te.
Kata Te
One handed.
Moro Te
Two hands on tsuka.
Soe Te
"Assisting hand" One hand on tsuka, one on blade.

Japanese Swords

Diagram of Katana and Saya

katana diagram

(Click on image to open a larger image in a separate window)

Measuring the Katana:

Shaku
30.2 cm. or 11.9 inches.
Sun
1/10 of a shaku.
Bu
1/10 of a sun, 0.3 cm
Nagasa
Measure of length of blade from kissaki to mune machi in a straight line
Sori
Measure of curve of blade from nagasa to mune at deepest point.
Tachi, Daito, Katana, = 2+ shaku.
Shoto, Wakizashi, 1-2 shaku.
Tanto, &LT1 shaku.

Sword Types:

Aikuchi
A dagger with no tsuba, typically worn by women
Bokken
Hardwood replica of sword.
Bokuto
Hardwood replica of sword.
Daisho
Great small, the set of two swords, daito and shoto.
Daito
Great sword, larger of the set of two, daisho along with shoto.
Gunto
War sword, usually refers to those made just prior to and during WWII.
Iaito
Practice sword for Iaido, usually not sharp.
Katana
Same as Daito. Mounted edge up.
Ken
Sword, usually refers to the straight double edged type.
Kodachi
Equivalent to SHOTO, lit. "small TACHI" with the same fittings as a tachi.
Koto
"Old sword". Blades before about 1600.
Mogito
Same as iaito. Dull bladed sword usually for iaido.
Suburito
Wooden sword, usually heavy. Used to build strength.
Shinai
Bamboo practice sword, used for Kendo.
Shinken
A real or "live" blade.
Shinto
New swords, from about 1600 to 1870.
Shin-shinto
Modern blades.
Shoto
The smaller of a pair of daisho, the other is the daito.
Tachi
Old style sword, (koto) mounted edge down. Often worn by horsemen.
Tanto
A knife-sized short sword, typically less than 1 SHAKU in length
To
Sword, curved type, single edge.
Uchi Gatana
Inside sword, forerunner of Katana, worn in belt.
Wakizashi
Equivalent to SHOTO, the shorter sword in a DAISHO pair, typically less than 2 SHAKU in length

Parts of the sword:

Omote
For Tachi. That side that faces out from the hip when it is in the saya in its usual mounting. This side is signed by the swordmaker.
Ura
For Tachi. Side that faces the hip.
Sashi Omote
(Katana) Side facing out.
Sashi Ura
(Katana) Side facing hip.
Tachi-Mei
The side with the signature.
Katana-Mei
The side with the signature.

Points on the sword blade (tang to tip):

Tang:
Nakago
Tang of blade.
Nakago Jiri
End of tang.
Mei
Signature on tang.
Yasuri Mei
File marks on tang.
Hitoe
Back of tang, meets mune at mune machi. Also called Nakago-mune.
Mekugi Ana
Hole through tang.
Mune Machi
Notch for habaki, at back of blade.
Ha Machi
Notch for habaki, at edge side of blade.
Blade:
Tsuba Moto
1/3 of blade nearest tsuba.
Chu O
Middle 1/3 of blade.
Mono Uchi
1/3 of blade nearest tip, cutting area.
Katahaba Measurement
at thickest part of blade.
Mune
Back of blade.
MUNE TYPES: Mitsumune (3 surfaces), Marumune (rounded), Iorimune (standard 2 surface)
Shinogi Ji
Area of blade near back from shinogi to mune.
Hi
Grooves down shinogi ji.
Shinogi
Line of blade between shinogi ji and jigane, ridge at widest point of blade.
Hiraji
Area of blade between hamon and shinogi.
Jigane
Refers to the steel material. Jigane = skin steel. Shingane = core steel. These have different carbon contents. Appearance of the jigane is controlled by the smith's folding technique. Can be of different patterns, courseness, etc.
Hamon
Ha = edge, Mon = Pattern. The shape or style of the yakiba. This does not necessarily exactly follow the shape of the yakiba. A polisher will "improve" it sometimes.
Hira
Face of the blade between shinogi and ha, includes hiraji and hamon.
Yakiba
Yaki = fired, Ba (Ha) = edge. The hardened part of the blade near the edge.
Habuchi
Boundary of the yakiba.
Ha
Cutting edge.
Tip:
Yokote
Line between edge plane and tip plane.
Mitsukado
Point where shinogi, yokote, and ko shinogi meet.
Ko Shinogi
Shinogi line through tip area.
Kissaki
Tip area, from yokote to end.
KISSAKI SIZES:
Ko kissaki = small, Chu Kissaki = medium, O kissaki = large.
Fukusa
Cutting edge in tip area.
Boshi
The hamon of the kissaki. Hardened area in tip / the curve leading to the point.

Fittings of the sword:

Tsuka
Handle.
Kashira
Fitting at end of handle, end of handle.
Tsuka Maki
The style, or pattern, or method of wrapping the handle.
Tsuka Ito
The material used to wrap the handle. Silk, Leather, etc.
Same
Belly skin from a type of Ray. However, the word SAME means "shark", not "ray fish".
Menuki
Decorative fixtures on handle.
Mekugi
Retaining peg.
Mekugi Ana
Hole for peg.
Fuchi Gane
Fitting between handle and guard.
Seppa
Spacers on either side of tsuba.
Tsuba
Sword guard.
Habaki
Fitting between tsuba and blade, wedge for koiguchi.
Kogai
Skewer.
Kogatana
Ko = small, Katana = blade. Small knife carried in a pocket on the Saya.
Kodzuka
Ko = small, Tsuka = handle. Handle of the Kogatana.

The scabbard:

Saya
Scabbard.
Shirasaya
lit. "white scabbard", a plain storage-only scabbard
Koiguchi
Scabbard mouth (literally carp's mouth).
Kurigata
Knob for tying sageo.
Shitodome
Metal fittings inside the kurigata.
Sageo
Cord from saya (kurigata) to hakama himo.
Kojiri
Fitting at end of saya, end of saya.

Body motions

Tai Sabaki
Body motions. TAI Body. SABAKI Movement.
Hikari Ashi
Rear foot moves forward and turns to face opponent, front foot turns to establish feet again in kamae but with opposite foot forward.
Irimi
Entering.
Jiku Ashi
Turning foot, the main axis of rotation.
Kaiten
Turning.
Mawari
Swinging around.
Seme
ASHI Pushing or pressing foot.
Suri Ashi
Sliding foot.
Tenkan
Moving one foot behind the other to face 180 degrees.

Walking:

Ayumi Ashi
Normal walking motion, back foot slides up to become front foot.
Chidori Ashi
"Bird walk" as in ayuma ashi.
Fumi Komi
Shift forward, as in a strike, using the hips.
Fumi Komi Ashi
Foot motion as shifting forward, front and back slide together, not two different movements.
Okuri Ashi
Following foot, step forward with front foot, then rear foot moves same distance forward to regain original distance apart.
Tsugi Ashi
Half step, rear foot up to front then front forward again.

The swordsman

Names of roles:

Kasso Teki
Invisible opponent.
Motodachi
Defender, teacher side in waza practice.
Nage
Performer of technique.
Shidachi (SHI TACHI)
Completing sword. Finishes partner practice.
Teki
Opponent
Tori
Attacker.
Uchidachi (UCHI TACHI)
Entering sword. "Attacker" in partner practice.
Uke
Receiver (of technique)

The body (top down):

Nakazumi
Centreline of body
Atama
Head
Men
Head.
Shomen
Front or top of head.
Yokomen
Side of head.
Shamen
Side of head, temple
Gammen
Point on face between the eyes.
Sunmen
Same as gammen.
Me
Eye.
Mimi
Ear.
Jinchu
Centre of upper lip.
Kubi
Neck
Nodo
Throat
Do
Chest / side of body at ribs
Sui Getsu
Solar plexus.
Mune
Chest. Particularily the area over the heart, in kendo, the embroidered part of the do above the do target.
Te
Hand.
Te Kubi
Wrist.
Omote
Open / palm of hand.
Kote
Wrist (forearm).
Hiji
Elbow
Kata
Shoulder
Ude
Arm in general.
Ura
Back of hand
Yubi
Finger / toe
Koshi
Hip.
Hara
Abdomen.
Tanden
Centre of balance, below navel.
Seika Tanden
As per tanden.
Ashi
Foot or leg.
Ashi Kubi
The ankle.

Philosophical concepts

Aiuchi
Mutual strike, strikes at the same time.
Budo
Way of war.
Bushido
Way of warrior.
Dai Kyo Soku Kei
Big strong fast smooth.
Dehana WAZA
Strike at the outset, as opponent moves, like sen no waza.
Do
Activity, motion.
Fushin
Frozen or stopped mind.
Fudoshin
Immovable mind, calm spirit.
Fukaku
Personal character.
Gokai
Grandeur, large feeling, full motions.
Go no Sen no Waza (GO NO SEN)
Strike at a suki, a mind stopping. Strike before the opponent forms the intention to strike.
Heijishin
Ordinary mind.
Jo Ha Kyu
Slow, faster, fastest.
Kake Goe
Yelling to get extra energy. Like Kiai.
Kensen
Pressure from the sword, esp. the tip.
Ki
Spirit, energy, inner strength.
Ki Ken Tai Ichi
Spirit, sword, body, one.
Kiai
Shout, yell.
Kime
Sharpness of movement, positive end of cut or thrust.
Kimochi
Feeling, sensation.
Kiryoku
Willpower.
Kokoro, Shin
Mind.
Kokyu
Breath, breath power.
Ma
Distance, space, interval (in time).
Mawai (MAAI)
Mutual distance (in space).
Mushin, Muso
No mind, no rationalization.
Muga
No ego.
Munen
No thought.
Oi Waza
Chasing or following strikes, attack as opponent retreats.
Riai
Unification of action and theory.
Sae of Swordsmanship
The skill beyond technique only.
Saya no Uchi no Kachi / Saya no Uchi de Katsu
Saya = scabbard, uchi = inside, kachi = victory. The sword in the saya, winning without drawing.
Sen
Initiative, to forestall.
Sen No Waza (SEN)
Strike faster than opponent, before attack delivered.
Sen Sen no Waza (SEN NO SEN)
Strike as opponent commits to an attack but before he moves.
Sei
Motionless, inactive.
Shu Ha Ri
Keep, break, leave. Memorize technique, question and understand, forget technique.
Suki
Opening.
Sutemi
Sacrifice technique, accept a blow to deliver one.

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